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The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%band 
ə28.99%musicia
20.57%face 
ɑ5.03%dance 
ɛ3.47%tomato 
a2.75%cabbage 
ɪ1.92%cabbage 
ɔ1.63%salt 
ɒ1.23%dishwasher 
ʌ0.54%appointment 
ai
100.00%trai
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%car 
ə32.96%sugar 
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%laundry 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughter 
aw
ɔ100.00%jaw 
b
b100.00%brother 
bb
b100.00%cabbage 
c
k77.19%continent 
s22.81%decision 
cc
k100.00%accountant 
ch
45.65%chainsaw 
k21.30%architect 
ʃ20.00%stretcher 
t͡ʃ13.04%church 
ci
ʃ80.00%politician 
ʃi20.00%species 
ck
k100.00%truck 
d
d100.00%nod 
dd
d100.00%ladder 
don
dn̩100.00%abandoned 
e
ɛ43.75%necklace 
ɪ22.88%exactly 
ə18.90%peninsula 
i8.37%geography 
e4.39%helicopter 
ɪə1.70%zero 
ea
i66.67%sea 
ɛ28.46%hea
ɪ2.44%ears 
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%hear
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beautiful 
ed
d100.00%called 
ee
i100.00%chee
eigh
100.00%eighteen 
er
ə39.34%pepper 
əɹ31.97%refrigerator 
ɜ16.72%deser
ɚ11.97%weather 
eu
ju100.00%feu
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%valley 
f
f100.00%ferry 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%handbag 
27.65%bandag
ʒ4.48%hedg
d͡ʒ4.19%charg
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%regional 
h
h100.00%heard 
i
ɪ74.61%cri
15.34%sign 
i4.64%piano 
ə3.88%cousi
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%idea 
ie
i100.00%piece 
igh
100.00%ligh
ir
ɜ55.77%skir
ə44.23%stair
j
87.62%pajamas 
d͡ʒ12.38%jazz 
k
k100.00%kitchen 
kn
n100.00%kneel 
l
l98.00%blackboard 
ɫ1.39%silver 
əl0.60%cruel 
le
əl100.00%bicycle 
ll
l100.00%valley 
m
m100.00%lemon 
mm
m100.00%commission 
n
n96.48%appointmen
ŋ3.52%anxious 
ng
ŋ100.00%stocking 
nn
n100.00%bonnet 
o
ə30.58%petro
ɒ26.97%ho
əʊ16.92%hose 
o6.88%potato 
ʌ5.85%mother 
ɔ5.28%appointment 
ɑ5.11%stocking 
u1.55%sho
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%boa
ɔ31.37%dashboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doesn't 
oo
u64.12%spoo
ʊ33.59%loo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%for
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%mouth 
u13.67%voluptuou
ʌ11.51%touch 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%though
ʌf30.77%enough 
oul
ʊ100.00%woul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%favour 
ous
əs100.00%serious 
ow
əʊ56.84%pillow 
43.16%cow 
p
p100.00%sponge 
ph
f100.00%photographer 
pp
p100.00%pepper 
ps
s100.00%psychiatrist 
qu
kw77.65%question 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%orange 
r24.03%trainer 
ə3.31%requir
əɹ3.20%temperatur
rr
ɹ100.00%ferr
s
s81.30%soup 
z17.28%does 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%pleasure 
sh
ʃ100.00%shoe 
sion
ʒən72.00%television 
ʃən28.00%tension 
ss
s98.17%glass 
ʃ1.83%issue 
ssion
ʃən100.00%mission 
t
t100.00%trumpet 
th
θ68.18%thirteen 
ð31.82%father 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%lettuce 
tu
100.00%temperature 
u
ʌ48.46%voluptuous 
ju19.51%music 
ə13.04%beautifu
u7.19%flute 
5.44%security 
ʊ4.93%push 
ɪ1.44%lettuce 
ue
u100.00%crue
ui
u100.00%frui
ur
ɜ92.86%nurse 
ɜr7.14%turning 
v
v100.00%shovel 
w
w95.39%work 
ʊ4.61%rainbow 
wh
ʍ84.62%when 
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%writing 
x
ks84.92%six 
ɡ11.90%exactly 
3.17%anxious 
y
i69.47%usually 
ɪ15.58%seventy 
10.59%psychological 
j4.36%yellow 
z
z100.00%razor 
zz
z100.00%puzzle