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The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%saxophone 
ə28.99%accountant 
20.57%baby 
ɑ5.03%bathroom 
ɛ3.47%carrot 
a2.75%cast 
ɪ1.92%orange 
ɔ1.63%walk 
ɒ1.23%swallow 
ʌ0.54%appointment 
ai
100.00%sailor 
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%scar
ə32.96%dictionar
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%sauce 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughing 
aw
ɔ100.00%jaw 
b
b100.00%bend 
bb
b100.00%rabbit 
c
k77.19%camel 
s22.81%bracelet 
cc
k100.00%accountant 
ch
45.65%cheek 
k21.30%school 
ʃ20.00%watch 
t͡ʃ13.04%charge 
ci
ʃ80.00%social 
ʃi20.00%species 
ck
k100.00%duck 
d
d100.00%detergent 
dd
d100.00%ladder 
don
dn̩100.00%abandon 
e
ɛ43.75%energy 
ɪ22.88%decision 
ə18.90%elevator 
i8.37%geography 
e4.39%vegetable 
ɪə1.70%deer 
ea
i66.67%sea 
ɛ28.46%hea
ɪ2.44%ears 
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%hear
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beautiful 
ed
d100.00%abandoned 
ee
i100.00%needle 
eigh
100.00%eighteen 
er
ə39.34%energy 
əɹ31.97%brother 
ɜ16.72%perfume 
ɚ11.97%weather 
eu
ju100.00%feu
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%turkey 
f
f100.00%fork 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%sugar 
27.65%pag
ʒ4.48%judg
d͡ʒ4.19%energ
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%religion 
h
h100.00%handkerchief 
i
ɪ74.61%sixty 
15.34%driver 
i4.64%broccoli 
ə3.88%security 
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%require 
ie
i100.00%piece 
igh
100.00%lightning 
ir
ɜ55.77%thirty 
ə44.23%stair
j
87.62%pajamas 
d͡ʒ12.38%jaw 
k
k100.00%cheek 
kn
n100.00%kneel 
l
l98.00%clutch 
ɫ1.39%beautiful 
əl0.60%real 
le
əl100.00%uncle 
ll
l100.00%valley 
m
m100.00%mountain 
mm
m100.00%hammer 
n
n96.48%nineteen 
ŋ3.52%uncle 
ng
ŋ100.00%finger 
nn
n100.00%tunnel 
o
ə30.58%onio
ɒ26.97%cough 
əʊ16.92%shoulder 
o6.88%motorcycle 
ʌ5.85%stomach 
ɔ5.28%oil 
ɑ5.11%photographer 
u1.55%sho
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%throa
ɔ31.37%keyboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doesn't 
oo
u64.12%too
ʊ33.59%loo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%transpor
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%flou
u13.67%incongruou
ʌ11.51%cousin 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%though
ʌf30.77%tough 
oul
ʊ100.00%woul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%colour 
ous
əs100.00%serious 
ow
əʊ56.84%pillow 
43.16%cow 
p
p100.00%sheep 
ph
f100.00%photographer 
pp
p100.00%pepper 
ps
s100.00%psychological 
qu
kw77.65%quite 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%run 
r24.03%reading 
ə3.31%flour 
əɹ3.20%temperatur
rr
ɹ100.00%carrot 
s
s81.30%storm 
z17.28%transport 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%pleasure 
sh
ʃ100.00%shirt 
sion
ʒən72.00%television 
ʃən28.00%pension 
ss
s98.17%glass 
ʃ1.83%pressure 
ssion
ʃən100.00%mission 
t
t100.00%chocolat
th
θ68.18%throat 
ð31.82%mother-in-law 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%butter 
tu
100.00%furniture 
u
ʌ48.46%tunnel 
ju19.51%music 
ə13.04%luxury 
u7.19%prune 
5.44%security 
ʊ4.93%butcher 
ɪ1.44%biscuit 
ue
u100.00%crue
ui
u100.00%frui
ur
ɜ92.86%church 
ɜr7.14%blur 
v
v100.00%driver 
w
w95.39%walk 
ʊ4.61%crowbar 
wh
ʍ84.62%wh
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%writing 
x
ks84.92%sixteen 
ɡ11.90%exactly 
3.17%luxury 
y
i69.47%balcony 
ɪ15.58%boy 
10.59%cry 
j4.36%yellow 
z
z100.00%magazine 
zz
z100.00%puzzle